Formelsamling - MAFY

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Formelsamling
Formelsamlingens konstanter och tabellvärden antas i
uträkningar vara exakta värden.
Avogadros tal NA = 6,022 · 1023 1/mol
Gravitationskonstanten γ = 6,6742 · 10−11 Nm2 /kg2
Elektronen laddning e = −1,602 · 10−19 C
Kvicksilvers densitet 13600 kg/m3
Faradays tal F = 96,5 · 103 C/mol
Molvolymen för idealgaser Vm = 22,41 `/mol (NTP)
Densiteten för torr luft 1,29 kg/m3 (NTP)
Hörseltröskelns intensitet I0 = 10−12 W/m2
Normalt lufttryck 1 atm = 101325 Pa
Gravitationsaccelereringen orsakad av jordens dragkraft g = 9,81 m/s2
0 ℃ = 273,15 K
Plancks konst. h = 6,626 · 10−34 Js = 4,1357 · 10−15 eVs
Stefan-Boltzmans konst. σ = 5,67 · 10−8 W/(m2 · K4 )
Permittivitet för vakuum 0 = 8,85 · 10−12 F/m
Ljusets hastighet c = 3,0 · 108 m/s
Vattnets densitet 1,0 · 103 kg/m3 (0 ℃ − 100 ℃)
Blodets densitet 1050 kg/m3
Vattnets förångningsvärme 2260 kJ/kg
Vattnets autoprotolys Kw = 1,008 · 10−14 (mol/`)2
Vattnets specifika värmekapacitet 4,19 kJ/(K · kg)
Allmänna gaskonstanten R = 8,314 J/(mol · K)
Ljudets hastighet i luft 343 m/s
k = 1 för en svart kropp
1 eV = 1,602 · 10−19 J
1 curie = 1 Ci = 3,7 · 1010 Bq
1 kwh = 3,6 MJ
proton:
mp = 1,6726586 · 10−27 kg
neutron:
mn = 1,6749543 · 10−27 kg
elektron:
me = 9,109 · 10−31 kg
atomimassaenhet: mu = 1,6605655 · 10−27 kg
mp = 1,0072825 mu
mn = 1,0086650 mu
ax2 + bx + c = 0
√
−b ± b2 − 4ac
x=
2a
[A− ][HB+ ]
K=
[HA][B]
[A− ][H3 O+ ]
Ka =
[HA]
−
[A ][H+ ]
Ka =
[HA]
[A− ]
pH = pKa + lg
[HA]
[A− ]
1
=
−
(pK
[HA] + [A ]
1 + 10 a −pH)
[HA]
1
=
−
(pH−pK
a)
[HA] + [A ]
1 + 10
L1
I = I0 e
−cd
A = lg(I0 /I)
A = cd
[H3 O+ ] =
p
Ka · Ctot
p = ρgh
U = RI,
P = UI
c = Hp0
A = 4πr2
V = (4/3)πr3
Jd
KD
=P =
∆c
∆x
P = φD/∆x
RT
cs
∆V = −
ln u
ZF
c
dc
F dV
J = −D
+ Zc
dx
RT dx
!
RT
PNa cuNa + PK cuK + PCl csCl
∆V = Vs − Vu =
ln
F
PNa csNa + PK csK + PCl cuCl
csK
cu
= Cl
u
cK
csCl
(cuCl + |Zp |cup )c0Cl = csK csCl
dE
I = Cm
+ gNa (E − ENa ) + gK (E − EK ) + g` (E − E` )
dt
sin(α)
λ1
c1
n2
=
=
=
= n21
sin(β)
λ2
c2
n1
1
1 1
+ =
a b
f
h
λ=
mv
F = q(v × B); F = qvB sin(α)
B = µ0 I/(2πr)
F = Q1 Q2 /(4π0 r2 )
F = QE,
E = U/d
F = mω 2 r = V (ρm − ρn )ω 2 r
v = F/f = V (ρm − ρn )ω 2 r/f
W = 1 /2 Jω 2
1
v = QE
6πrη
Es = [Zmp + N mn − mγ ]c2
A = λN = λN0 e−λt = A0 e−λt
lg A = lg A0 − (lg e)λt
ln(2)
T1 /2 =
λ
λef = λfys + λbiol
Tf Tb
Tf Te
Te =
, Tb =
Tf + Tb
Tf − Te
L2
A = A1 e−λ1 t + A2 e−λ2 t
f2 = [(n2 − n1 )r + n1 r]/(n2 − n1 ) = f1 + r
I = I0 e−µx
H = wR D;
E=
XX
R
wR wT D T ;
q
v=
q
X
WT = 1
T
E = hf = hc/λ;
√
f = 1/(2π LC)
v=
XL = 2πf L
H T = wR D T
E( eV) = 1240/λ( nm)
pV = nRT
p2 V2
p1 V1
=
T1
T2
V = V0 (1 + αV ∆T )
γRT /M
p = p0 (1 + αp ∆T )
E/ρ
Q = cp m∆T
I0 = 10−12 W/m2
β = 10 lg(I/I0 )
R = 10 lg(P1 /P2 ) = 10 lg(1/τ )
τ1 A1 + τ2 A2 + . . .
τ=
A
c
c±v
f = f0
; f = f0
c±v
c
2
F = mv /r
T =
(f1 /f2 ) = (n1 /n2 )
q
4π 2 (r/a)
4π 2
F = mω 2 r = 2 mr
T
m1 m2
F =γ 2
r
λAθ
φ=
d
λθ
q=
d
φ = hAθ
θ = T1 − T2
P
P
= σT 4 ;
= kσT 4
A
A
h = 1 /2 gt2
v = v0 + gt
h = v0 t + 1 /2 gt2
ω = ω0 + αt
ϕ = ϕ0 + ω0 t + 1 /2 αt2
T = 2π/ω
n = 1/T
an = v 2 /r
F = mv 2 /r = mω 2 r = (4π 2 /T 2 )mr
y(x, t) = ymax sin(ωt − kx)
p(x, t) = pmax cos(ωt − kx)
I = Φ/ω = Φtot /4π
E = Φ/A
L = I/A; [L] = cd/m2 = 1 Nit = 1 nitti
L = Ig /(A cos())
(n1 /a) + (n2 /b) = (n2 − n1 )/r
W = γ∆A
W = F ∆`
1 / mv 2
Ek
2
=
= 1 /2 ρv 2
V
V
Ep
mgh
=
= ρgh
V
V
Fs
W
F
=
=
p=
A
As
V
q
c=
(∆p/∆V )(V /p)
F = (EA/`)(∆`)
F = N ABI sin(α)
R = ∆p/qv = 8ηL/(πr4 )
PRU = ∆p( mmHg)/qv ( ml/s)
PVR = 80(P Am − LAm )/Vp
SVR = 80(AOm − RAm )/Vp
π∆pR4
8ηL
ρvR
Re =
η
2 (ρ − ρ0 )gr2
v=
9
η
W = Fs
qv =
Ep = mgh
p = mv
Ek = 1 /2 mv 2
Er = 1 /2 Jω 2
P = W/∆t
η = Wa /Wo
η = (Wa /∆t)/(Wo /∆t) = Pa /Po
µ(x, y, z) − µvesi
T T -luku = 1000
µvesi
M =F ·r
Epot = qU
XC = 1/(2πf C)
J=
X
ms2
Aminosyrorna
NH2
NH2
COOH
O
NH
H2 N
COOH
Alanin, Ala, A
H2 N
NH
Arginin, Arg, R
COOH
H2 N
O
COOH
O
Glutaminsyra,
Glu, E
Glutamin, Gln, Q
H
COOH
H2 N
Leucin, Leu,L
COOH
Lysin, Lys, K,
HO
Serin, Ser, S
1
I
H
[1]
2
II
3
IIIb
COOH
N
Histidin, His, H
NH
COOH
Fenylalanin,
F
Phe,
Prolin, Pro, P
NH2
HO
NH2
NH2
COOH
OH
6
VIb
Isoleucin, Ile, I
COOH
Metionin, Met, M
COOH
Treonin, Thr, T
5
Vb
COOH
NH2
COOH
4
IVb
NH2
COOH
NH2
COOH
COOH
Cystein, Cys, C
NH2
HN
NH2
HN
NH2
COOH HS
Glysin, Gly, G
S
NH2
Asparaginsyta,
Asp, D
COOH
NH2
NH2
NH2
HO
NH2
NH2
COOH
O
Asparagin, Asn, N
NH2
HO
NH2
7
VIIb
Tryptofan, Trp, W
8
9
VIIIb
10
Tyrosin, Tyr, Y
11
Ib
12
IIb
COOH
Valin, Val, V
13
III
14
IV
15
V
16
VI
17
VII
B
[5]
C
[6]
N
[7]
O
[8]
F
[9]
1,0079
Li
[3]
18
VIII
He
[2]
4,0026
Be
[4]
Ne
[10]
6,9412 9,0121
10,811 12,010 14,006 15,999 18,998 20,179
Na
[11]
Al
[13]
Mg
[12]
22,989 24,305
K
[19]
Ca
[20]
Si
[14]
P
[15]
S
[16]
Cl
[17]
Ar
[18]
26,981 28,085 30,973 32,065 35,453 39,948
Sc
[21]
Ti
[22]
V
[23]
Cr
[24]
Mn
[25]
Fe
[26]
Co
[27]
Ni
[28]
Cu
[29]
Zn
[30]
Ga
[31]
Ge
[32]
As
[33]
Se
[34]
Br
[35]
Kr
[36]
39,098 40,078 44,955 47,867 50,941 51,966 54,938
55,845 58,933 58,693 63,546 65,409 69,723 72,641 74,921 78,963 79,904 83,798
Rb
[37]
Ru
[44]
Sr
[38]
Y
[39]
Zr
[40]
Nb
[41]
Mo
[42]
Tc
[43]
Rh
[45]
Pd
[46]
Ag
[47]
Cd
[48]
In
[49]
Sn
[50]
Sb
[51]
Te
[52]
I
[53]
Xe
[54]
85,467 87,621 88,905 91,224 92,906 95,942 98,906
101,07 102,90 106,42 107,86 112,41 114,81 118,71 121,76 127,60 126,90 131,29
Cs
[55]
Os
[76]
Ba
[56]
La
[57]
Hf
[72]
Ta
[73]
W
[74]
Re
[75]
Ir
[77]
Pt
[78]
Au
[79]
Hg
[80]
Tl
[81]
Pb
[82]
Bi
[83]
Po
[84]
At
[85]
Rn
[86]
132,90 137,32 138,90 178,49 180,94 183,84 186,20
190,23 192,21 195,08 196,96 200,59 204,38 207,21 208,98 208,98 209,98 222,01
Fr
[87]
Hs
Mt
Ds
Rg
Uub Uut Uuq Uup Uuh Uus Uuo
[108] [109] [110] [111] [112] [113] [114] [115] [116] [117] [118]
Ra
[88]
Ac
[89]
Rf
Db
Sg
Bh
[104] [105] [106] [107]
223,01 226,02 227,02 261,10 262,11 266,12 264,12
Lantanoider
Aktinoider
Ce
[58]
Pr
[59]
Nd
[60]
Pm
[61]
Sm
[62]
Eu
[63]
Gd
[64]
Tb
[65]
Dy
[66]
Ho
[67]
Er
[68]
Tm
[69]
Yb
[70]
Lu
[71]
140,11 140,90 144,24
146,91 150,36 151,96 157,25 158,92 162,50 164,93 167,25 168,93 173,04 174,96
Th
[90]
Np
[93]
Pa
[91]
U
[92]
232,03 231,03 238,02
Pu
[94]
Am
[95]
Cm
[96]
Bk
[97]
Cf
[98]
Es
[99]
Fm
Md No
Lr
[100] [101] [102] [103]
237,04 244,06 243,06 247,07 247,07 251,07 252,08 257,09 258,09 259,10 260,10
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